Revised on May 05, 2008
Web maintenance:
For more information about the Missouri Source Water Assessment Plan contact David Erickson

MoDNR | PDWB | SWAP | CARES | SWIP | Missouri Water Resources Center

Source Water Assessment Plan - State of Missouri

Appendix E (b)

List of Potential Contaminant Sources

Categories of Potential Contamination Sources and Activities

Source Health, Environment or Aesthetic Contaminant (1,2,3)
Schools and government offices and grounds Solvents; pesticides;9,10 acids; alkalis; waste oils; machinery/vehicle servicing wastes; gasoline and heating oil from storage tanks; general building wastes13
Park lands Fertilizers;6 herbicides,10 insecticides9
Public and residential areas infested with mosquitoes, gypsy moths, ticks, ants, or other pests Pesticides5,9
Highways, road maintenance depots, and deicing operations Herbicides in highway rights-of-way;5,10 road salt (sodium and calcium chloride); road salt anti-caking additives (ferris ferrocyanide, sodium ferrocyanide); asphalt/tar; road salt anti-corrosives (phosphate and chromate); automotive wastes7
Municipal sewage treatment plants and sewer lines Municipal wastewater, sludge; 14 treatment chemicals15
Storage, treatment, and disposal ponds, lagoons, and other surface impoundments Sewage wastewater; nitrates or other liquid wastes; microbiological contaminants


Land areas applied with wastewater or wastewater byproducts Organic matter; nitrate, inorganic salts; heavy metals; coliform and noncoliform bacteria;4 viruses; nitrates; sludge;14 nonhazardous wastes16
Storm water drains and basins Urban runoff; gasoline; oil; other petroleum products; road salt; microbiological contaminants
Combined sewer overflows (municipal sewers and storm water drains) Municipal wastewater; sludge;14 treatment chemicals;15 urban runoff; gasoline; oil; other petroleum products; road salt; microbial contaminants
Recycling/reduction facilities Residential and commercial solid waste residues
Municipal waste landfills Leachate; organic and inorganic chemical contaminants; wastes from households8 and businesses;13 nitrates; oils; metals

Open dumping and burning sites, closed dumps

Organic and inorganic chemicals; metals; oils; wastes from households8 and businesses13

Municipal incinerators

Heavy metals; hydrocarbons; formaldehyde; methane; ethane; ethylene; acetylene; sulfur and nitrogen compounds
Water supply wells, monitoring wells, older wells, domestic and livestock wells, unsealed and abandoned wells, and test hole wells Surface runoff; effluents from barnyards, feedlots, organic chemicals and metals, septic tanks, or cesspools; gasoline; used motor oil; road salt

Sumps and dry wells

Storm water runoff; spilled liquids; used oil; antifreeze; gasoline; other petroleum products; road salt; pesticides;5 and a wide variety of other substances
Drainage wells Pesticides;9,10 bacteria
Well pumping that causes interaquifer leakage, induced filtration, landward migration of sea water in coastal areas; etc. Saltwater; excessively mineralized water
Artificial ground water recharge Storm water runoff; excess irrigation water; stream flow; cooling water; treated sewage effluent; other substances that may contain contaminants, such as nitrates, metals, detergents, synthetic organic compounds, bacteria, and viruses


Airports, abandoned airfields Jet fuels; deicers; diesel fuel; chlorinated solvents; automotive wastes;7 heating oil; building wastes13

Auto repair shops

Waste oils; solvents; acids; paints; automotive wastes;7 miscellaneous cutting oils
Barber and beauty shops Perm solutions; dyes; miscellaneous chemicals contained in hair rinses
Boat yards and marinas Diesel fuels; oil; septate from boat waste disposal areas; wood preservative and treatment chemicals; paints; waxes; varnishes; automotive wastes7

Bowling alleys

Epoxy; urethane-based floor finish
Car dealerships (especially those with service departments) Automotive wastes;7 waste oils; solvents; miscellaneous wastes
Car washes Soaps; detergents; waxes; miscellaneous chemicals
Camp grounds Septate; gasoline; diesel fuel from boats; pesticides for controlling mosquitoes, ants, ticks, gypsy moths and other pests;5,9 household hazardous wastes from recreational vehicles (RVs)8
Carpet stores Glues and other adhesives; fuel from storage tanks if forklifts are used
Cemeteries Leachate; arsenic; lawn and garden maintenance chemicals10
Construction trade areas and materials (plumbing, heating and air conditioning, painting, paper hanging, decorating, drywall and plastering, acoustical insulation, carpentry, flooring, roofing and sheet metal, wrecking and demolition, etc.) Solvents; asbestos; paints; glues and other adhesives; waste insulation; lacquers; tars; sealants; epoxy waste; miscellaneous chemical wastes
Country clubs Fertilizers;6 herbicides;5,10 pesticides for controlling mosquitoes, ticks, ants, gypsy moths, and other pests;9 swimming pool chemicals;11 automotive wastes
Dry cleaners Solvents (perchloroethylene, petroleum solvents, Freon); spotting chemicals (trichloroethane, methylchloroform, ammonia, peroxides, hydrochloric acid, rust removers, amyl acetate)
Funeral services and crematories Formaldehyde; wetting agents; fumigants; solvents
Furniture repair and finishing shops Paints; solvents; degreasing and solvent recovery sludges
Gasoline service stations Oils; solvents; miscellaneous wastes
Golf courses Fertilizers;6 herbicides;5,10 pesticides for controlling mosquitoes, ticks, ants, gypsy moths and other pests9
Hardware/lumber/parts stores Hazardous chemical products in inventories; heating oil and fork lift fuel from storage tanks; wood-staining and treating products such as creosote, chlorophenolic compounds, chromium, copper, and arsenic
Heating oil companies, underground storage tanks Heating oil; wastes from truck maintenance areas7
Horticultural practices, garden nurseries, florists Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and other pesticides10
Jewelry/metal plating shops Sodium and hydrogen cyanide; metallic salts; hydrochloric acid; sulfuric acid; chromic acid
Laundromats Detergents; bleaches; fabric dyes
Medical institutions X-ray developers and fixers;17 infectious wastes; radiological wastes; biological wastes; disinfectants; asbestos; beryllium; dental acids; miscellaneous chemicals
Office buildings and office complexes Building wastes;13 lawn and garden maintenance chemicals;10 gasoline; motor oil
Paint stores Paints; paint thinners; lacquers; varnishes; other wood treatments
Pharmacies Spilled and returned products
Photography shops, photo processing laboratories Biosludges; silver sludges; cyanides; miscellaneous sludges
Print shops Solvents; inks; dyes; oils; photographic chemicals
Railroad tracks and yards Diesel fuel; herbicides for rights-of-way; creosote for preserving wood ties
Research laboratories X-ray developers and fixers;17 infectious wastes; radiological wastes; biological wastes; disinfectants; asbestos; beryllium; solvents; infectious materials; drugs; disinfectants (quaternary ammonia, hexachlorophene, peroxides, chlornexade, bleach); miscellaneous chemicals
Scrap and junk yards Any wastes from businesses13 and households;8 oils
Sports and hobby shops Gunpowder and ammunition; rocket engine fuel; model airplane glue
Above-ground and underground storage tanks Heating oil; diesel fuel; gasoline; other petroleum products; other commercially used chemicals
Transportation services for passenger transit (local and interurban) Waste oil; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuel from vehicles and storage tanks; fuel oil; other automotive wastes7
Veterinary services Solvents; infectious materials; vaccines; drugs; disinfectants (quaternary ammonia, hexachlorophene, peroxides, chlornexade, bleach); x-ray developers and fixers17
Material stockpiles (coal, metallic ores, phosphates, gypsum) Acid drainage; other hazardous and nonhazardous wastes16
Waste tailing ponds (commonly for the disposal of mining wastes) Acids; metals; dissolved solids; radioactive ores; other hazardous and nonhazardous wastes16
Transport and transfer stations (trucking terminals and rail yards) Fuel tanks; repair shop wastes;7 other hazardous and nonhazardous wastes16
Above-ground and underground storage tanks and containers Heating oil; diesel and gasoline fuel; other petroleum products; hazardous and nonhazardous materials and wastes16
Storage, treatment, and disposal ponds, lagoons, and other surface impoundments Hazardous and nonhazardous liquid wastes;16 septate; sludge14
Chemical landfills Leachate; hazardous and nonhazardous wastes;16 nitrates
Radioactive waste disposal sites Radioactive wastes from medical facilities, power plants, and defense operations; radionuclides (uranium, plutonium)
Unattended wet and dry excavation sites (unregulated dumps) A wide range of substances: solid and liquid wastes; oil-field brines; spent acids from steel mill operations; snow removal piles containing large amounts of salt
Operating and abandoned production and exploratory wells (for gas, oil, coal, geothermal, and heat recovery); test hole wells; monitoring and excavation wells Metals; acids; minerals; sulfides; other hazardous and nonhazardous chemicals16
Dry wells Saline water from wells pumped to keep them dry
Injection wells Highly toxic wastes; hazardous and nonhazardous industrial wastes;16 oilfield brines
Well-drilling operations Brines associated with oil and gas operations; drilling fluids/muds, diesel/gasoline fuels and other petroleum products
Asphalt plants Petroleum derivatives
Communications equipment manufacturers Nitric, hydrochloric, and sulfuric acid wastes; heavy metal sludges; copper-contaminated etchant (e.g., ammonium persulfate); cutting oil and degreasing solvent (trichloroethane, Freon, or trichloroethylene); waste oils; corrosive soldering flux; paint sludge; waste plating solution
Electric and electronic equipment manufacturers and storage facilities Cyanides; metal sludges; caustics (chromic acid); solvents; oils; alkalis; acids; paints and paint sludges; calcium fluoride sludges; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichloroethane; acetone; methanol; toluene; PCBs
Electroplaters Boric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and sulfuric acids; sodium and potassium hydroxide; chromic acid; sodium and hydrogen cyanide; metallic salts
Foundries and metal fabricators Paint wastes; acids; heavy metals; metal sludges; plating wastes; oils; solvents; explosive wastes
Furniture and fixtures manufacturers Paints; solvents; varnishes; degreasing sludges; solvent recovery sludges
Machine and metalworking shops Solvents; metals; miscellaneous organics; sludges; oily metal shavings; lubricant and cutting oils; degreasers (tetrachloroethylene); metal marking fluids; mold-release agents
Mining operations (surface and underground), underground storage mines Mine spoils or tailings that often contain metals; acids; highly corrosive mineralized waters; metal sulfides
Unsealed abandoned mines used as waste pits Metals; acids; minerals; sulfides; other hazardous and nonhazardous chemicals16
Paper mills Metals; acids; minerals; sulfides; other hazardous and nonhazardous chemicals16
Petroleum production and storage companies, secondary recovery of petroleum Hydrocarbons; oil-field brines (highly mineralized salt solutions)
Industrial pipelines Corrosive fluids; hydrocarbons; other hazardous and nonhazardous materials and wastes16
Photo processing laboratories Cyanides; biosludges; silver sludges; miscellaneous sludges
Plastics materials and synthetics producers Solvents; oils; miscellaneous organics and inorganics (phenols, resins); paint wastes; cyanides; acids; alkalis; wastewater treatment sludges; cellulose esters; surfactant; glycols; phenols; formaldehyde; peroxides; etc.
Primary metal industries (blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills) Heavy metal wastewater treatment sludge; pickling liquor; waste oil; ammonia scrubber liquor; acid tar sludge; alkaline cleaners; degreasing solvents; slag; metal dust
Publishers, printers, and allied industries Solvents; inks; dyes; oils; miscellaneous organics; photographic chemicals
Public utilities (phone, electric, power, gas) PCBs from transformers and capacitors; oils; solvents; wood preservatives (creosote and pentachlorophenol); sludges; acid solution; metal plating solutions (chromium, nickel, cadmium); herbicides from utility rights-of-way
Sawmills and planers Treated wood residue (copper quinolate, mercury, sodium bazide); tanner gas; paint sludges; solvents; creosote; coating and gluing wastes
Stone, clay, and glass manufacturers Solvents; oils and grease; alkalis; acetic wastes; asbestos; heavy metal sludges; phenolic solids or sludges; metal-finishing sludge
Welders Oxygen, acetylene
Wood preserving facilities Wood preservatives; creosote; chlorophenolic compounds; metals
Animal feedlots and burial areas Livestock sewage wastes; nitrates; phosphates; chloride; chemical sprays and dips for controlling insect, bacterial, viral, and fungal pests on livestock; coliform4 and noncoliform bacteria; viruses
Manure spreading areas and storage pits Livestock sewage wastes; nitrates
Livestock waste disposal areas Livestock sewage wastes; nitrates
Crop areas and irrigation sites Pesticides;5 fertilizer;6 gasoline and motor oils from chemical applicators
Chemical storage areas and containers Pesticides;5 fertilizer6 residues
Farm machinery areas Automotive wastes;7 welding wastes
Agricultural drainage wells and canals Pesticides;5 fertilizer;6 bacteria
Common household maintenance and hobbies Common Household Products:8 Household cleaners; oven cleaners; drain cleaners; toilet cleaners; disinfectants; metal polishes; jewelry cleaners; shoe polishes; synthetic detergents; bleach; laundry soil and stain removers; spot removers and dry cleaning fluid; solvents; lye or caustic soda; household pesticides;9 photochemicals; printing ink, other common products. Wall and Furniture Treatments: Paints; varnishes; stains; dyes; wood preservatives (creosote); paint and lacquer thinners; paint and varnish removers and deglossers; paintbrush cleaners; floor and furniture strippers. Mechanical Repair and Other Maintenance Products: Automotive wastes;7 waste oils; diesel fuel; kerosene; #2 heating oil; grease; degreasers for driveways and garages; metal degreasers; asphalt and roofing tar; tar removers; lubricants; rustproofers; car wash detergents; car waxes and polishes; rock salt; refrigerants
Lawns and gardens Fertilizers;5 herbicides and other pesticides used for lawn and garden maintenance10
Swimming pools Swimming pool chemicals11
Septic systems, cesspools, and sewer lines Septate; coliform and noncoliform bacteria;4 viruses; nitrates; heavy metals; synthetic detergents; cooking and motor oils; bleach; pesticides;9,10 paints; paint thinner; photographic chemicals; swimming pool chemicals;11 septic tank/cesspool cleaner chemicals;12 elevated levels of chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphate
Underground storage tanks Home heating oil
Apartments and condominiums Swimming pool maintenance chemicals;11 pesticides for lawn and garden maintenance and cockroach, termite, ant, rodent, and other pest control;9,10 wastes from onsite sewage treatment plants; household hazardous wastes8

1 In general, ground water contamination stems from the misuse and improper disposal of liquid and solid wastes; the illegal dumping or abandonment of household, commercial, or industrial chemicals; the accidental spilling of chemicals from trucks, railways, aircraft, handling facilities, and storage tanks; or the improper siting, design, construction, operation, or maintenance of agricultural, residential, municipal, commercial, and industrial drinking water wells and liquid and solid waste disposal facilities. Contaminants also can stem from atmospheric pollutants, such as airborne sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are created by smoke, flue dust, aerosols, and automobile emissions, fall as acid rain, and percolate through the soil. When the sources listed in this table are used and managed properly, ground water contamination is not likely to occur.

2 Contaminants can reach ground water from activities occurring on the land surface, such as industrial waste storage; from sources below the land surface but above the water table, such as septic systems; from structures beneath the water table, such as wells; or from contamination recharge water.

3 This table lists the most common wastes, but not all potential wastes. For example, it is not possible to list all potential contaminants contained in storm water runoff or research laboratory wastes.

4 Coliform bacteria can indicate the presence of pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms that may be transmitted in human feces. Diseases such as typhoid fever, hepatitis, diarrhea, and dysentery can result from sewage contamination of water supplies.

5 Pesticides include herbicides, insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, and avicides. EPA has registered approximately 50,000 different pesticide products for use in the United States. Many are highly toxic and quite mobile in the subsurface. An EPA survey found that the most common pesticides found in drinking water wells were DCPA (dacthal) and atrazine, which EPA classifies as moderately toxic (class 3) and slightly toxic (class 4) materials, respectively.

6 The EPA National Pesticides Survey found that the use of fertilizers correlates to nitrate contamination of ground water supplies.

7 Automotive wastes can include gasoline; antifreeze; automatic transmission fluid; battery acid; engine and radiator flushes; engine and metal degreasers; hydraulic (brake) fluid; and motor oils.

8 Toxic or hazardous components are found in most common household products.

9 Common household pesticides for controlling pests such as ants, termites, bees, wasps, flies, cockroaches, silverfish, mites, ticks, fleas, worms, rats, and mice can contain active ingredients including naphthalene, phosphorus, xylene, chloroform, heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, arsenic, strychnine, kerosene, nitrosamines, and dioxin.

10 Common pesticides used for lawn and garden maintenance (i.e., weed killers, and mite, grub, and aphid controls) include such chemicals as 2,4-D; chlorpyrifos; diazinon; benomyl; captan; dicofol; and methoxychlor.

11 Swimming pool chemicals can contain free and combined chlorine; bromine; iodine; mercury-based, copper-based, and quaternary algicides; cyanuric acid; calcium or sodium hypochlorite; muratic acid; and sodium carbonate.

12 Septic tank/cesspool cleaners include synthetic organic chemicals such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, and methylene chloride.

13 Common wastes from public commercial buildings include automotive wastes; rock salt; and residues from cleaning products that may contain chemicals such as xylenols, glycol esters, isopropanol, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, sulfonates, chlorinated phenols and cresols.

14 Municipal wastewater treatment sludge can contain organic matter; nitrates; inorganic salts; heavy metals; coliform and noncoliform bacteria; and viruses.

15 Municipal wastewater treatment chemicals include calcium oxide; alum; activated alum, carbon, and silica; polymers; ion exchange resins; sodium hydroxide; chlorine; ozone; and corrosion inhibitors.

16 The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defines a hazardous waste as a solid waste that may cause an increase in mortality or serious illness or pose a substantial threat to human health and the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed. A waste is hazardous if it exhibits characteristics of ignitabliity, corrosivity, reactivity, and/or toxicity. Not covered by RCRA regulations are domestic sewage; irrigation waters or industrial discharge allowed by the Clean Water Acts; certain nuclear and mining wastes; household wastes; agricultural wastes (excluding some pesticides); and small-quantity hazardous wastes (i.e., less than 220 pounds per month) generated by businesses.

17 X-ray developers and fixers may contain reclaimable silver, glutaldehyde, hydroquinone, phenedone, potassium bromide, sodium sulfite, sodium carbonate, thiosulfates, and potassium alum.

18 This table lists potential groundwater contaminants from many common industries, but it does not address all industries.


MoDNR | PDWB | SWAP | CARES | SWIP | Missouri Water Resources Center
For more information about the Missouri Source Water Assessment Plan contact David Erickson at
Web maintenance:
Revised on May 05, 2008